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中国語・マンダリン

 中国語のことを「中文」、「漢語」あるいは「中国話」というのはよく知られているようですが、欧米やシンガポールでは「マンダリンmandarin」と呼ばれることがあります。

 Mandarinは「中国の官吏」を意味する英語で、マンダリンという言い方の誕生とつながっています。清朝末期までは中国各地の高級官僚は「科挙」に合格した者です。彼らは各地に赴任したのだが、出身地はまちまちだから、自分の出身地の方言で、赴任先の役所では通じないことがよくあります。それで各地の役所で自然にある言葉が誕生しました。これは「官話」で、つまり役人さまの言葉です。その時にこのような言葉は「満大人mandaren」という。その後Mandarinとなったそうです。

 つまり、官話→満大人mandaren→Mandarin→マンダリン→中国語という経緯でした。

ニイハオチャイナ神戸   (紹の森)

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